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جملات نقلی در انگلیسی

دانلود نسخه قابل چاپ جملات نقلی در انگلیسی

Reported statements in English

در این بخش به بیان جملات نقلی در انگلیسی می پردازیم.

1. The introductory sentence

1.1. The introductory sentence in the Simple Present

If the introductory sentence is in the Simple Present, there is no backshift of tenses.

  • Direct Speech → Susan: “Mary works in an office.”
  • Reported Speech → Susan says (that)* Mary works in an office.

The introductory sentence is here: Susan says … → this sentence is in the Simple Present, so there is no backshift of tenses.

1.2. The introductory sentence in the Simple Past

If the introductory sentence is in the Simple Past, there is mostly backshift of tenses.

  • Direct Speech → Susan: “Mary works in an office.”
  • Reported Speech → Susan said (that)* Mary worked in an office.

The introductory sentence is here: Susan said … → this sentence is in the Simple Past, so there is backshift of tenses.

1.3. Types of introductory sentences

The word say in introductory sentences can be substituted with other words, e.g.

  • add
  • decide
  • know
  • mention
  • remark
  • tell *
  • think

2. Change of persons/pronouns

The person/pronoun used in Direct Speech may be adapted in Reported Speech, depending of the situation.

Emily and John are talking about fashion at school. Emily says to John:

  • Emily: “I like your new T-shirt.”

Possibility 1:

John says to his friend Max in the afternoon:

  • Emily said (that) she liked my new T-shirt.

Possibility 2:

Emily says to her friend Julia in the afternoon:

  • I said (that) I liked his new T-shirt.

3. Backshift of tenses

If the introductory sentence in in the Simple Past, there is backshift of tenses in Reported Speech. We shift the tense used in Direct Speech one step back in Reported Speech. If we use Past Perfect or the modals would, could, should, might, must, ought to and needn’t in Direct Speech there is possibility to shift the tense back in Reported Speech.

3.1. Simple Present → Simple Past

Direct Speech Reported Speech
Peter: “I work in the garden.” Peter said (that) he worked in the garden.

3.2. Simple Past, Present Perfect, Past Perfect → Past Perfect

Direct Speech Reported Speech
Peter: “I worked in the garden.” Peter said (that) he had worked in the garden.
Peter: “I have worked in the garden.”
Peter: “I had worked in the garden.”

3.3. Auxiliaries, Modals

Direct Speech Reported Speech
Peter: “I will work in the garden.” Peter said (that) he would work in the garden.
Peter: “I can work in the garden.” Peter said (that) he could work in the garden.
Peter: “I may work in the garden.” Peter said (that) he might work in the garden.
Peter: “I would work in the garden.”

  • could
  • might
  • should
  • ought to
Peter said (that) he would work in the garden.

  • could
  • might
  • should
  • ought to

3.4. Present Progressive → Past Progressive

Direct Speech Reported Speech
Peter: “I‘m working in the garden.” Peter said (that) he was working in the garden.
Peter: “I was working in the garden.” Peter said (that) he had been working in the garden.
Peter: “I have been working in the garden.”
Peter: “I had been working in the garden.”

3.5. Past Progressive, Present Perfect Progressive, Past Perfect Progressive → Past Perfect Progressive

Direct Speech Reported Speech
Peter: “I was working in the garden.” Peter said (that) he had been working in the garden.
Peter: “I have been working in the garden.”
Peter: “I had been working in the garden.”

4. Shifting/Conversion of expressions of time and place

If there is an expression of time/place in the sentence, it my be shifted, depending on the situation.

Emily is at school, writing in her workbook. She misses her red pen at lunchtime. Emily says to John:

  • “I lost my red pen here this morning.”

Possibility 1:

John says to his friend Max who is in the same room.

  • Emily said (that) she had lost her red pen here this morning.

Possibility 2:

One day later, John sees his friend Gerry at his house. They talk about school.

  • John says to Gerry → Emily said (that) she had lost her red pen at our school that morning.
  • John says to Gerry → Emily said (that) she had lost her red pen there yesterday morning.
Direct Speech Reported Speech
this evening that evening
today/this day that day
these days those days
now then
a week ago a week before
last weekend the weekend before / the previous weekend
next week the following week
tomorrow the next/following day
here there

* Do not forget the person after the word tell:

  • She told me (that) …
  • She told George (that) …

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