دوشنبه , 18 نوامبر 2019
صفحه اصلی » فرهنگ کشورهای مختلف به انگلیسی » فرهنگ و آداب و رسوم کشور چین به انگلیسی
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دوره مدیریت فروش و بازاریابی حرفه ای

فرهنگ و آداب و رسوم کشور چین به انگلیسی

دانلود نسخه قابل چاپ فرهنگ و آداب و رسوم کشور چین به انگلیسی

Religion

The Chinese Communist Party that rules the nation is officially atheist, though it is gradually becoming more tolerant of religions, according to the Council on Foreign Relations. Currently, there are only five official religions. Any religion other than Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestantism are illegal, even though the Chinese constitution states that people are allowed freedom of religion. The gradual tolerance of religion has only started to progress in the past few decades.

About a quarter of the people practice Taoism and Confucianism and other traditional religions. There are also small numbers of Buddhists, Muslims and Christians. Although numerous Protestant and Catholic ministries have been active in the country since the early 19th century, they have made little progress in converting Chinese to these religions.

Language

There are seven major groups of dialects of the Chinese language, which each have their own variations, according to Mount Holyoke College. Mandarin dialects are spoken by 71.5 percent of the population, followed by Wu (8.5 percent), Yue (also called Cantonese; 5 percent), Xiang (4.8 percent), Min (4.1 percent), Hakka (3.7 percent) and Gan (2.4 percent).

Chinese dialects are very different, according to Jerry Norman, a former professor of linguistics at the University of Washington and author of “Chinese (Cambridge Language Surveys)” (Cambridge University Press, 1988). “Chinese is rather more like a language family than a single language made up of a number of regional forms,” he wrote. “The Chinese dialectal complex is in many ways analogous to the Romance language family in Europe. To take an extreme example, there is probably as much difference between the dialects of Peking [Beijing] and Chaozhou as there is between Italian and French.”

The official national language of China is Pŭtōnghuà, a type of Mandarin spoken in the capital Beijing, according to the Order of the President of the People’s Republic of China. Many Chinese are also fluent in English.

Food

Like other aspects of Chinese life, cuisine is heavily influenced by geography and ethnic diversity. Among the main styles of Chinese cooking are Cantonese, which features stir-fried dishes, and Szechuan, which relies heavily on use of peanuts, sesame paste and ginger and is known for its spiciness.

Rice is not only a major food source in China; it is also a major element that helped grow their society, according to “Pathways to Asian Civilizations: Tracing the Origins and Spread of Rice and Rice Cultures,” an 2011 article in the journal Rice by Dorian Q. Fuller. The Chinese word for rice is fan, which also means “meal,” and it is a staple of their diet, as are bean sprouts, cabbage and scallions. Because they do not consume a lot of meat — occasionally pork or chicken — tofu is a main source of protein for the Chinese.

The Arts

Chinese art is greatly influenced by the country’s rich spiritual and mystical history. Many sculptures and paintings depict spiritual figures of Buddhism, according to the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Many musical instruments are integral to Chinese culture, including the flute-like xun and the guqin, which is in the zither family.

Eastern-style martial arts were also developed in China, and it is the birthplace of kung fu. This fighting technique is based on animal movements and was created in the mid-1600s, according to Black Belt Magazine.

Ancient Chinese were avid writers and philosophers — especially during the Ming and Qing dynasties — and that is reflected in the country’s rich liturgical history.

Customs and celebrations

The largest festival — also called the Spring Festival — marks the beginning of the Lunar New Year. It falls between mid-January and mid-February and is a time to honor ancestors. During the 15-day celebration, the Chinese do something every day to welcome the new year, such as eat rice congee and mustard greens to cleanse the body, according to the University of Victoria. The holiday is marked with fireworks and parades featuring dancers dressed as dragons.

Many people make pilgrimages to Confucius’ birthplace in Shandong Province on his birthday, Sept. 28. The birthday of Guanyin, the goddess of mercy, is observed by visiting Taoist temples. It falls between late March and late April. Similar celebrations mark the birthday of Mazu, the goddess of the sea (also known as Tianhou), in May or June. The Moon Festival is celebrated in September or October with fireworks, paper lanterns and moon gazing.

China is a country steeped in ancient customs and traditions of which the native people are proud. To many people in the west countries, the word ‘China’ typically conjure up thoughts of dragonsgiant pandas, the colorthe number 8 and the distinctive calligraphy, all of which are traditional to this country.

China and the whole Europe share similar-size land area. With such a large area, customs are always different in different parts. In addition, due to the fact that this country is one of the existing oldest cultures, traditions have grown over centuries with unique festivals, customs, arts and cuisines.

Festival

Chinese New Year (or Spring Festival) is the most important festival celebrated all over the country. It is the first day of the whole year in Chinese lunar calendar. It’s hard to miss the good fortune or happiness messages hung in red from every doorway and the smell of feasts being cooked as families gather at this time.

 

The number 6 is an example of the sound byte association mentioned above: “six” is pronounced “liu” in Mandarin Chinese, and has a sound byte close to the sound byte for the Mandarin Chinese word which means “flowing, smooth, or frictionless”therefore the number 6 is considered very lucky, especially where it occurs in multiples. So highly is the number 6 prized, in fact, that a motorcycle dealership in Zengcheng in Guangdong Province paid the net sum of RMB 272,000 (USD $34,000) for a motorcycle license plate bearing the number AW6666.

Legend

As a legend goes, a monster, named Xi, always finds food in villages for its lack of food in winter. Villagers are afraid of this monster, so they come up with a way to frighten and expel Xi by lighting bamboos and paste red paper on their doors. Xi fears the sound of lighted bamboos and red color, so it runs away.

People successfully chase away Xi. The day people expelling Xi, people call it Chu Xi which is the Chinese of New Year’s Eve. (Chu in English means expelling or killing.). Nowadays, people still kindle bamboos in New Year’s Eve, but just for celebrating the coming of New Year.

Art

Chinese calligraphy has played a significant role in Chinese art. Dating back over 3,000 years, characters were pictures of objects representing their meaning.

The Oracles is the origin of Chinese characters. According to Chinese mythology, Cang Jie invented Chinese characters. Findings show that the earliest characters are the Oracles which were engraved on animals’ bones or tortoises’ shells.

Master Wang Hsi-chih (303—361 A.D.) was an outstanding representative of Chinese calligraphy. Many people facsimile his works until today. Through all these years evolution, characters have evolved into the words we used today.

Cuisines

The food is one of the traditional cultures in China which is famous around the world. From Roast Duck and Noodles with Bean Paste in Beijing to dim sum in Hong Kong, no one would deny that the kinds of Chinese cuisines are various. It’s not uncommon to hear people greeting each other by asking “Have you eaten yet?” Many travelers are aware but unsure of all the etiquette traditions but most locals will be tolerant of the odd mistake; a smile and following what your fellow diners do will get you through.

China is one of the oldest countries with long history and abundant cultures. Enjoying a trip to China, every visitor would have their own special experience. It would be advisable to prepare a little bit before any trips. China Travel can help you tailor-making your China trip, worry-free, save time and money!

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